Uganda is an East African country traversed by the Equator. It is divided into 80 districts and spreads over 241,039 km². The climate is quite favourable as it is located at altitude (on average 2 rainy seasons per year). More than 80% of the working population is employed in the agricultural sector. Even if the country is self-sufficient in food, wealth is poorly distributed. Moreover, it is vulnerable to changes in the price of coffee which represents its main export earner.

During the period that followed independence in 1962 Uganda could boast a well-balanced economic and social climate. However, during the 70s and 80s the country faced civil and military unrest under the dictatorships of Milton Obote and Idi Amin Dada which resulted in the destruction of the infrastructures in the country (notably in education and health) and the death of hundreds of thousands of people. In 1986, Yoweri Museveni took power and over more than a decade has toiled to redress the economic and social position of the country. Still, great inequalities subsist and the law forbidding opposition political parties was only abolished in 2005.

Moreover, armed conflicts have continued in the North of the country between government forces and the Lord's Resistance Army (LRA) whose main leaders are wanted by the International Court of Justice for war crimes. In order to reach their goal (taking control to run the country following the tenets of the 10 commandments of the Bible) this group has not hesitated in attacking civilians, causing the displacement of 1.6 million people, kidnapping or killing tens of thousands including at least 25,000 children. The situation, nevertheless, seems to have calmed down since a cease-fire was signed in August 2006. Apart from this violence the main causes of mortality are HIV/AIDS and other diseases like malaria, pneumonia or even tuberculosis, as well as road accidents.

Economically, even if more than half the populations lives on less than one US$ per day, poverty would seem to be on the decline but this improvement has to be offset by a colossal trade deficit. 

Indicateurs[Unicef, 2013]

Population, 2010 33'425'000
Life expectancy, 2010 54
Under-5 mortality rate, 2010 9.9%
Total fertility rate, 2010 6.1
% of population urbanized, 2010 13
% of population below international poverty line of US$1.25 per day, 2005 52

As can be seen from the table above the population of Uganda is estimated at 33.4 million inhabitants. This figure would be higher were it not for AIDS and a life expectancy which is close to 50. With a prevalence rate of 7.2% among sexually active population (15-49 years (Unicef, 2012)), HIV/AIDS is responsible for around 10,000 deaths per year. Such an epidemic, quite obviously, has had a serious impact economically and socially. On the one hand young adults, affected by the illness, are not physically able to labour nor render service to the community. On the other, more and more children are orphaned and the role of parent has to be assumed by their grandparents who may be elderly.